# Fundamentals of Data Processing – For Test, Interview and Viva

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## DATA

Data is the collection of raw facts and figures. It is without any proper meaning.
Data may be collection of words, numbers, graphics or sounds.

### Examples of Data

1) When students get admission in a college. They fill admission form. This form contains raw facts (data of student) like name, father’s name, address of student etc.
2) During census, data of all citizens is collected.

## INFORMATION

Processed data is called information. When raw facts and figures are arranged in some order then they become information. Information has proper meanings. Information is useful in decision-making. Actually we process data to convert it into information.

### Exapmle of Information:

1) Stored data of students can be used to print address labels of students.
2) Census data is used to get report/information about total population of a country and literacy rate etc.

## Q.2 Describe types of Data.

There are followimg types of Data.
1) NUMERIC DATA:Numeric data consists of 0 to 9 digits, + and – sign and decimal point etc.
For example, 10, 78, 90.50, -56 etc
2) ALPHABETIC DATA
It consists of all alphabetic letters A to Z, a to z and blank space etc. For example, Pakistan, Ahmad, Abdul Rahim, GCC , RYK, Ahmad etc.
3) ALPHANUMERIC DATA
It consists of alphabet letters, digits and special characters like #, \$, % etc.
For example, House Number 10-A, 14-August-1947, F-16 etc.
4) GRAPHIC DATA
Graphic data or image data consists of charts, graphs and images etc. For example a collection of maps of countries, a collection of family pictures etc.
5) AUDIO DATA
Audio data consists of sounds and voices. For example audio naat, radio program, radio news
VIDEO DATA:Video data consists of moving pictures. For example movie, TV dram, TV news etc.
6) MIXED DATA:Mixed data consists of combined data of two or more types. For example, TV drama consists of audio as well as video data.

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN DATA AND INFORMATION
 DATA INFORMATION 1 Data is collection of raw facts and figures. Information is processed data. 2 Data is not arranged. Information is arranged. 3 Data is unorganized. Information is organized. 4 Data is not so meaningful. Information is Meaningful. 5 Data is input. Information is out put.

## DATA PROCESSING

Data processing is the sequence of operations performed on data to convert it into useful information. These operations may be arithmetic, statistical or logical operations. We can arrange or classify data.

### TYPES OF DATA PROCESSING (OR) LEVELS OF DATA PROCESSING)

There are three types of data processing.

### 1) Manual data processing

In manual data processing data is processed manually. No machine or tool is used.
All the calculations on data are performed manually. This is a slow method and errors may occur..

### 2)Mechanical Data Processing

In mechanical data processing data is processed with calculators or other mechanical devices. This method is faster and more accurate than manual data processing.

### 3) Electronic data processing

It is the latest method of data processing. Data is processed with computer

## DATA PROCESSING CYCLE

After collecting data, it is processed to convert into information. The data is processed again and again until accurate result is achieved. This is called data processing cycle. Data processing cycle involves following three basic activities: 1) Input 2)Processing 3) Output

## Q.5 What is the need of Data processing in business?

NEED OF DATA PROCESSING IN BUSINESS
There is no more business without information. To improve the business there is a need to improve data processing and information system. The need of data processing in business is clear. Following are the reasons:
RECORD KEEPING , ACCESSING RECORDS , COMMUNICATION, COST, SPEED, ACCURACY, REPORTS