Q. What is an Operating System? Explain Components of an Operating system.
An operating system is a set of programs that manages all computer components and operations. An operating system works as an interface between the user and the computer hardware.
Examples of Operating Systems
Some popular operating systems are DOS, windows, Unix, Linux, and OS/2.
Without Operating System, a computer cannot do anything. Users interact with the computer through operating system. Operating system acts as an interface between a user and computer hardware.
Components of an Operating system
An Operating system has many components to manage all resources of a computer system as following:
1. Process Management
CPU can perform one task at one time. If there are many tasks, operating system decides which task should get the CPU first.
2. Main Memory Management
Operating system manages memory (RAM)for many running programs. It allocates memory area to different programs. It deallocates the memory area when a program is terminated.
3. Secondary Storage Management
Operating system manages secondary storage. It manages the stored files and folders on disk in a proper way so that minimum space is consumed and faster access of files when required.
4. I/O System management
It manages Input/output operations. It controls Input/Output devices like mouse, keyboard, monitor and printer etc.
5. File Management
File management component performs all activities related to files. It manages files for example creation of file or deletion of files.
6. Protection System
There are many processes of different users in memory at a time. So operating system provides protection component so that no process can interfere with another process’s activity.
Modern Operating system provides networking services. Operating system provides access to shared resources by networking system.
8. Command Interpreter system
Operating system provides command interpreter component. Command line interpreter is used for reading and executing user commands. The user will type commands on command line interface which will be executed.